Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Effects of Cement Particle Size Disbribution on Performance Properties of Portland Cement-Based Materials



Dale P. Bentz, Edward J. Garboczi, C Haecker, O M. Jensen


The original size, spatial distribution, and composition of Portland cement particles have a large influence on hydration kinetics, microstructure development, and ultimate properties of cement-based materials. In this paper, the effects of cement particle size distribution on a variety of performance properties are explored via computer simulation and a few experimental studies. Properties examined include setting time, heat release, capillary porosity percolation, diffusivity, chemical shrinkage, autogeneous shrinkage, internal relative humidity evolution, and interfacial transition zone microstructure. The effects of flocculation and dispersion of the cement particles in the starting microstructures are also briefly evaluated. The computer simulations are conducted using two cement particle size distributions that bound those commonly in use today and three different water-to-cement ratios: 0.5, 0.3, and 0.246. For lower water-to-cement ratio systems, the use of coarser cements may offer equivalent or superior performance, as well as reducing production costs for the manufacturer.
Cement and Concrete Research
No. 10


building technology, diffusivity, heat of hydration, high-performance concrete, interfacial transition zone, microstructure, modelling, particle size distribution, percolation


Bentz, D. , Garboczi, E. , Haecker, C. and Jensen, O. (1999), Effects of Cement Particle Size Disbribution on Performance Properties of Portland Cement-Based Materials, Cement and Concrete Research, [online], (Accessed May 27, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created October 1, 1999, Updated February 19, 2017