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Effect of Diamond Nanolubricant on R134A Pool Boiling Heat Transfer



Mark A. Kedzierski


This paper quantifies the influence of diamond nanoparticles on the pool boiling performance of R134a/polyolester mixtures on a roughened, horizontal, flat surface. Nanofluids are liquids that contain dispersed nano-size particles. A lubricant based nanofluid (nanolubricant) was made by suspending 10 nm diameter diamond particles in a synthetic ester to roughly a 2.6 % volume fraction. For the 0.5 % nanolubricant mass fraction, the nanoparticles caused a heat transfer enhancement relative to the heat transfer of pure R134a/polyolester (99.5/0.5) up to 129 %. A similar enhancement was observed for the R134a/nanolubricant (99/1) mixture, which had a heat flux that was on average 91 % larger than that of the R134a/polyolester (99/1) mixture. Further increase in the nanolubricant mass fraction to 2 % resulted in boiling heat transfer degradation of approximately 19 % for the best performing tests. It was speculated that the poor quality of the nanolubricant suspension caused the performance of the (99.5/0.5), and the (98/2) nanolubricant mixtures to decay over time to, on average, 36 % and 76 % of the of pure R134a/polyolester performance, respectively. Thermal conductivity and viscosity measurements and a refrigerant\lubricant mixture pool-boiling model were used to suggest that increases in thermal conductivity and lubricant viscosity are mainly responsible for the heat transfer enhancement due to nanoparticles. Particle size measurements were used to suggest that particle agglomeration induced a lack of performance repeatability for the (99.5/0.5) and the (98/2) mixtures. From the results of the present study, it is speculated that if a good dispersion of nanoparticles in the lubricant is not obtained, then the agglomerated nanoparticles will not provide interaction with bubbles, which is favorable for heat transfer.
Proceedings Title
2nd ASME Micro/Nanoscale Heat & Mass Transfer International Conference
Conference Dates
December 18-21, 2009
Conference Location


additives, boiling, diamond, enhanced heat transfer, nanotechnology, refrigerants, refrigerant/lubricant mixtures


Kedzierski, M. (2009), Effect of Diamond Nanolubricant on R134A Pool Boiling Heat Transfer, 2nd ASME Micro/Nanoscale Heat & Mass Transfer International Conference, Shanghai, -1, [online], (Accessed June 24, 2024)


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Created December 15, 2009, Updated February 19, 2017