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Effect of Current Density and Electrolyte Concentration on Hillock Growth from Pure Sn Electrodeposits



Kil-Won Moon, S. -. Kim, Maureen E. Williams, William J. Boettinger, Gery R. Stafford


The effect of current density and Sn methane sulfonate concentration on hillock density, columnar grain size, crystallographic texture, and residual stress of bright Sn electrodeposits is measured. Correlation was found between hillock density and the ratio of the applied current density to transport limited current density. When the ratio exceeds unity no hillocks are observed. As the transport limited current is approached and exceeded, the columnar grain size decreases from 1.4 um to 0.7 um and the preferred orientation (fiber texture) rotates toward the [001] direction. Possible explanations are presented for how these factors reduce hillock growth. Because hillock and whisker growth are related phenomena, electrodeposition beyond the limiting current may be a possible whisker mitigation strategy.
Journal of Applied Electrochemistry


Sn whisker, Pb-free solder, electrodeposition, texture, preferred orientation, stress


Moon, K. , Kim, S. , Williams, M. , Boettinger, W. and Stafford, G. (2010), Effect of Current Density and Electrolyte Concentration on Hillock Growth from Pure Sn Electrodeposits, Journal of Applied Electrochemistry (Accessed June 22, 2024)


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Created July 1, 2010, Updated February 28, 2020