Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Dynamics of the Release of Alternate Halon Replacement Agents From Pressurized Bottles



William M. Pitts, Jiann C. Yang, B D. Breuel, W G. Cleveland, G. Gmurczyk


Halon 1301 has been widely employed on military and commercial aircraft for fire fighting purposes. Unfortunately, due to the deleterious effects of chlorine and bromine on stratospheric ozone, the manufacture of halon 1301 will be phased out by the end of 1993 under the terms of the Montreal Protocol. As a result, the military services and the Federal Aviation Administration, with the U.S. Air Force coordinating the effort, have initiated a research program to identify effective halon 1301 replacements which are low ozone depleters. As part of this project, a list of eleven potential halon 1301 alternatives have been proposed. The National Institute of Standards and Technology has been tasked to recommend which of the eleven compounds should be tested at full scale. The work reported in this paper is part of this task.
Proceedings Title
Halon Options Technical Working Conference 1993
Conference Dates
May 11-13, 1993
Conference Location
Albuquerque, NM


halons, experiments, halon 1301, military facilities, military aircraft, nacelle fires, halon alternatives


Pitts, W. , Yang, J. , Breuel, B. , Cleveland, W. and Gmurczyk, G. (1993), Dynamics of the Release of Alternate Halon Replacement Agents From Pressurized Bottles, Halon Options Technical Working Conference 1993, Albuquerque, NM, [online], (Accessed April 14, 2024)
Created May 11, 1993, Updated February 19, 2017