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Dynamic Deformation of Jacketed Lead Bullets Captured By High Speed DIC



Steven P. Mates


The development of high fidelity simulations of lead-cored bullet impacts on soft body armor, motivated by the need for improved armor designs and performance standards for law enforcement, requires accurate models for both the armor and the deformable bullet. This paper examines the ability of the Johnson-Cook constitutive model to predict the dynamic deformation of a 0.357 caliber copper-jacketed lead-cored slug subjected to a direct-impact Kolsky Bar test. A high speed 3D Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique is used to measure the deformation history of the slug subject to an impact velocity of 15.3 m/s and an impact energy of 62.5 J, which is about 6.5 % of the impact energy required in NIJ Standard 0101.04 for testing Type II body armor with this bullet. The DIC results and force history data are compared to finite element simulations of the test. A sensitivity analysis of the material parameters is carried out to determine their relative influence on the deformation and force history response, and improved parameter values are identified and compared to the baseline values.
Proceedings Title
SEM 2010 Conference Proceedings
Conference Dates
June 7-10, 2010
Conference Location
Indianapolis, IN
Conference Title
SEM 2010 Annual Conference and Exposition


Kolsky bar, digital image correlation, soft body armor, finite element modeling, lead bullets


Mates, S. (2010), Dynamic Deformation of Jacketed Lead Bullets Captured By High Speed DIC, SEM 2010 Conference Proceedings, Indianapolis, IN, [online], (Accessed April 24, 2024)
Created June 7, 2010, Updated February 6, 2020