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Distributing Time and Frequency Information



Judah Levine


This chapter discusses the statistics that are used to characterize the performance of clocks, oscillators, and the networks that are used to calibrate and synchronize and calibrate clocks and oscillators by means of data received from global navigation satellites systems and other sources. A discussion of algorithms that are used to adjust the time and frequency of clocks based on these data is also included.
Position, Navigation and Timing in the 21st Century
Publisher Info
Wiley Book, Denver, CO


Allan Variance, All in View methods, Common View Methods, Internet Time Transfer, Network Time Protocol, Traceability, Two-way time transfer


Levine, J. (2020), Distributing Time and Frequency Information, Wiley Book, Denver, CO, [online], (Accessed April 19, 2024)
Created December 15, 2020, Updated March 25, 2024