Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Diffraction limited focusing and directing of gap plasmons by a metal-dielectric-metal lens



Brian S. Dennis, David Czaplewski, Michael Haftel, Daniel Lopez, Girsh Blumberg, Vladimir Aksyuk


Passive optical elements can play key roles in photonic applications such as plasmonic integrated circuits. Here we experimentally demonstrate passive gap-plasmon focusing and directing in two-dimensions. This is accomplished using a high numerical-aperture metal-dielectric-metal lens incorporated into a planar-waveguide device. Detailed fabrication via metal sputtering, oxide deposition, electron- and focused-ion- beam lithography, and argon ion-milling is reported. Diffraction-limited focusing is optically characterized by microscopically sampling out-coupled light. The measured focal distance and 0.9 um full-width-half-max spot size agree well with the calculated lens performance. The surface plasmon propagation length is measured by sampling light from multiple out-coupler slits.
Optics Express


Electro-optical devices, Integrated optics devices, Optical microelectromechanical devices, Plasmonics, Nanophotonics and photonic crystals


Dennis, B. , Czaplewski, D. , Haftel, M. , Lopez, D. , Blumberg, G. and Aksyuk, V. (2015), Diffraction limited focusing and directing of gap plasmons by a metal-dielectric-metal lens, Optics Express, [online],, (Accessed July 14, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created August 23, 2015, Updated October 12, 2021