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Development of Standard Test Methods for Unmanned and Manned Industrial Vehicles Used Near Humans



Roger V. Bostelman, Richard J. Norcross, Joseph A. Falco, Jeremy A. Marvel


The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has been researching human-robot/vehicle collaborative environments for automated guided vehicles (AGVs) and manned forklifts. Safety of AGVs and manned vehicles with automated functions (e.g., forklifts that slow/stop automatically in hazardous situations) are the focus of the American National Standards Institute/Industrial Truck Safety Development Foundation (ANSI/ITSDF) B56.5 safety standard. Recently, the NIST Mobile Autonomous Vehicle Obstacle Detection/Avoidance (MAVODA) Project began researching test methods for when humans or other obstacles enter or may enter the manned or unmanned vehicle path. Both line-of-sight and non-line-of-sight conditions are prevalent in manufacturing facilities where industrial vehicles are used causing potential safety hazards. Standard test methods described in this paper must therefore address both of these conditions and are expected to provide B56.5 with measurement science basis for both non-contact and contact sensing systems that are currently used or may be used in the future on industrial vehicles near humans.
Proceedings Title
Proceedings of the SPIE Defense, Security, and Sensing
Conference Dates
April 29-May 3, 2013
Conference Location
Baltimore, MD


automated guided vehicles, ANSI/ITSDF B56.5 safety standard, force measurement, collaborative work spaces


Bostelman, R. , Norcross, R. , Falco, J. and Marvel, J. (2013), Development of Standard Test Methods for Unmanned and Manned Industrial Vehicles Used Near Humans, Proceedings of the SPIE Defense, Security, and Sensing, Baltimore, MD, [online], (Accessed July 14, 2024)


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Created May 3, 2013, Updated February 19, 2017