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Ying-Ju Wang, John Kitching, Isaac Fan, Yang Li


The precise measurement of magnetic fields is a fundamental tool of remote sensing. However, accurately measuring the direction of magnetic fields is challenging with atomic magnetometers. The standard approach of collecting vector measurements involves either arranging multiple scalar magnetometers on orthogonal axes or using external compensation coils to detect the orientation of the observed magnetic field by nullifying it in the vicinity of the sensor. In this work, we discuss progress on the development of an all-optical vector atomic magnetometer that uses electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) on 87Rb vapor. The magnitude of the magnetic field is evaluated by measuring the separation of the laser transmission peaks of the Zeeman-resolved EIT spectra, and the direction is measured by evaluating the relative peak contrast using a lightweight machine learning algorithm involving principal component analysis (PCA). We have demonstrated a scalar sensitivity of less than 10pT/√Hz in the 1 − 100 Hz frequency band and an angular accuracy of better than 1 degree. This approach for vector magnetometry does not require an array of sensors or calibration coils, ultimately setting the groundwork for the design of a new magnetometer that is lighter and more accurate than conventional vector magnetometer configurations.
Proceedings Title
2023 IEEE International Symposium on Geoscience and Remote Sensing (IGARSS)
Conference Dates
July 16-21, 2023
Conference Location
Pasadena, CA, US


Vector Magnetometry, Electromagnetically Induced Transparency, Principal Component Analysis


Wang, Y. , Kitching, J. , Fan, I. and Li, Y. (2023), ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN OPTICAL RUBIDIUM VECTOR ATOMIC MAGNETOMETER, 2023 IEEE International Symposium on Geoscience and Remote Sensing (IGARSS), Pasadena, CA, US, [online],, (Accessed June 17, 2024)


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Created July 16, 2023, Updated June 7, 2024