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Determination of Inorganic Ions in Mineral Water by Gradient Elution Moving Boundary Electrophoresis



Paul M. Flanigan IV, David J. Ross, Jonathan G. Shackman


A sensitive method was developed for the determination of the major inorganic ions in commercial mineral waters using gradient elution moving boundary electrophoresis (GEMBE) with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C4D). This application was the first to demonstrate the separation of cations and anions simultaneously using GEMBE. Seven ionic analytes (calcium, chloride, magnesium, nitrate, potassium, sodium, and sulfate) were separated in less than 7 minutes with detection values in the low μmol/L to sub-μmol/L range. Calculated values of the major ions in three commercial mineral waters were compared to reported values with good correlation. In another application, phosphate and arsenate were separated in less than 2 minutes with limits of detection of 300 and 140 nmol/L respectively. For all analyses, the relative standard deviations for migration times and peak areas were under 3%.


arsenic, capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection, CE, gradient elution moving boundary electrophoresis, water analysis


Flanigan, P. , Ross, D. and G., J. (2010), Determination of Inorganic Ions in Mineral Water by Gradient Elution Moving Boundary Electrophoresis, Electrophoresis (Accessed April 24, 2024)
Created October 1, 2010, Updated February 19, 2017