Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Detection of Topological Matter with Quantum Gases



Ian B. Spielman


Creating and measuring topological matter – with order deeply imbedded it’s quantum mechanical eigenstates structure – presents unique experimental challenges. This sort of intrinsically non-local order might seem experimentally inaccessible in any macroscopic system, however, as the precisely quantized Hall plateaux in integer and fractional quantum Hall systems show, topology can have macroscopic signatures at the system’s edges. Ultracold atoms provide new experimental platforms where both the intrinsic topology and the edge behavior can be directly measured. This manuscript reviews, using specific examples, how noninteracting topological matter may be created and measured in quantum gases.
Annalen Der Physik


Artificial gauge fields, chern numbers, time-of-flight


Spielman, I. (2013), Detection of Topological Matter with Quantum Gases, Annalen Der Physik, [online], (Accessed July 14, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created June 20, 2013, Updated November 10, 2018