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Andrew Slifka, Douglas Stalheim, Chris San Marchi, Joseph Ronevich, Jim Campbell


A renewed push for controlling greenhouse gases has brought the use of hydrogen as an energy source in industry and transportation to the forefront in many different areas of the world. Part of the infrastructure development for the use of hydrogen is to use pipelines for transportation and potentially even as temporary storage vessels. The pipelines being explored for use are a combination of the existing oil/natural gas pipeline network plus the addition of new pipelines to support the volume of hydrogen required. The pipelines may transport pure gaseous hydrogen or a mix of natural gas and hydrogen gas. As has been well documented over the years, hydrogen will diffuse with assistance by various mechanisms of corrosion and pressure into steel and degrade the mechanical properties through embrittlement or hydrogen induced cracking. Of particular concern are critical ductility properties such as fracture toughness and fatigue crack growth. There has been substantial fracture and fatigue evaluation of various industrially produced API pipeline and structural steels grades in a gaseous hydrogen environment up to 21 MPa (3000 psi). Based on the results of the research, testing and experience compiled over the past 15-20 years, this paper will summarize the fracture performance of various API grade steels from X52 to X80 in relationship to microstructural characteristics that affect ductility. The intent of this summary is to give end users guidance on fracture performance in repurposing of existing API grade pipelines and construction of new pipelines for high pressure gaseous hydrogen service.
Conference Dates
March 29-31, 2022
Conference Location
Ghent, BE
Conference Title
Technology for Future and Aging Pipelines 2022


Charpy, ductility, fracture, hydrogen, hydrogen embrittlement, pipeline steel


Slifka, A. , Stalheim, D. , San Marchi, C. , Ronevich, J. and Campbell, J. (2022), DETAILED SUMMARY OF CHARACTERISTICS AND ATTRIBUTES OF API STEEL INTENDED FOR GASEOUS HYDROGEN PIPELINE SERVICE, Technology for Future and Aging Pipelines 2022, Ghent, BE, [online], (Accessed April 23, 2024)
Created September 15, 2022, Updated November 29, 2022