Design for a multifrequency high magnetic field superconducting quantum interference device-detected quantitative electron paramagnetic resonance probe: Spin-lattice relaxation of cupric sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4H2O
Brant Cage, Stephen E. Russek
We have designed a spectrometer for the quantitative determination of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) at high magnetic fields and frequencies. It uses a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) for measuring the magnetic moment as a function of the applied magnetic field and microwave frequency. We used powdered 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl to demonstrate resolution of g-tensor anisotropy to 1 mT in a magnetic field of 3 T with a sensitivity of 1014 spins per 0.1 mT. We demonstrate multifrequency operation at 95 and 141 GHz. By use of an aligned single crystal of cupric sulfate pentahydrate (chalcanthite) CuSO4H2O, we show that the spectrometer is capable of EPR line shape analysis from 4 to 200 K with a satisfactory fit to a Lorentzian line shape at 100 K. Below 100 K, we observed line-broadening, g-shifts, and spectral splittings, all consistent with a known low-dimensional phase transition. Using SQUID magnetometry and a superconducting magnet, we improve by an order of magnitude the sensitivity and magnetic field range of earlier power saturation studies of CuSO4H2O. We were able to saturate up to 70% of the magnetic moment with power transfer saturation studies at 95 GHz, 3.3 T and 4 K and obtained the spin-lattice relaxation time, T1=1.8 ms, of CuSO4H2O at 3.3 T and 4 K. We found an inverse linear dependence of T1, in units of seconds (s) at 3.3 T between 4 and 2.3 K, such that T1=0.016•K•s•υ-1-0.0022•s, where υ is the absolute bath temperature. The quantitative determination of EPR is difficult with standard EPR techniques, especially at high frequencies or fields. Therefore this technique is of considerable value.