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Design and Performance of the new NIST Hybrid Humidity Generator



Christopher W. Meyer, W Wyatt Miller, Dean C. Ripple, Gregory E. Scace


A new humidity generator has been constructed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Once fully operational, the NIST Hybrid Humidity Generator (HHG) will replace the Two-Pressure (2-P) Humidity Generator Mark II as the NIST primary humidity generation standard for frost/dew points from 70 C to +25 C using calibration gas-flow rates up to 150 standard liters per minute. The HHG will extend the NIST humidity generation range up to 85 C, and is expected to outperform the 2-P Generator in terms of accuracy. The HHG combines the two-pressure and divided-flow humidity generation techniques (hence the name hybrid ). The centerpiece of the HHG is a heat exchanger/saturator that is immersed in a temperature-controlled bath stable to within 1 mK. A precisely regulated pre-saturation process minimizes sensible and latent heat loading on the final saturator. For dew/frost point temperatures above 15 C, the two-pressure principle is employed. For frost points at or below 15 C, the water-vapor/air mixture is produced by mixing metered streams of moist air produced by the two-pressure principle with purified, dry air; here, the HHG saturates the wet air stream at a temperature close to the water triple point, reducing the uncertainty of the water vapor pressure.
Proceedings Title
Proceedings of NCSLI 2008 Workshop and Symposium
Conference Dates
August 3-7, 2008
Conference Location
Orlando, FL


humidity, generator, standards, saturator, calibration, hygrometer, water vapor


Meyer, C. , , W. , Ripple, D. and Scace, G. (2008), Design and Performance of the new NIST Hybrid Humidity Generator, Proceedings of NCSLI 2008 Workshop and Symposium, Orlando, FL, [online], (Accessed April 19, 2024)
Created August 1, 2008, Updated February 19, 2017