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DES Modes of Operation [includes Change Notice of May 31, 1996]



Institute for Computer Sciences and Technology National Bureau of Standards


[Withdrawn May 19, 2005] The Federal Data Encryption Standard (DES) (FIPS 46) specifies a cryptographic algorithm to be used for the cryptographic protection of sensitive, but unclassified, computer data. This FIPS defines four modes of operation for the DES which may be used in a wide variety of applications. The modes specify how data will be encrypted (cryptographically protected) and decrypted (returned to original form). The modes included in this standard are the Electronic Codebook (ECB) mode, the Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) mode, the Cipher Feedback (CFB) mode, and the Output Feedback (OFB) mode.
Federal Inf. Process. Stds. (NIST FIPS) - 81
Report Number


computer security, cryptography, data security, DES, encryption, Federal Information Processing Standards, modes of operation


Computer, I. (1980), DES Modes of Operation [includes Change Notice of May 31, 1996], Federal Inf. Process. Stds. (NIST FIPS), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (Accessed June 13, 2024)


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Created December 2, 1980, Updated February 19, 2017