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Dental Resin Composites Containing Ceramic Whiskers and Precured Glass Ionomer Particles



H H. Xu, F Eichmiller, Joseph M. Antonucci, Gary E. Schumacher, L K. Ives


Objectives: Glass ionomer, resin-modified glass ionomer, and compomer materials are susceptible to brittle fracture and are inadequate for use in large stress-bearing posterior restorations. The aim of this study was to use ceramic single crystal whiskers to reinforce composites formulated with precured glass ionomer, and to examine the effects of whisker-to-precured glass ionomer ratio on mechanical properties, fluoride release, and polishability of the composites. Methods. Silicon particles were fused onto silicon nitride whiskers to facilitate silanization and to improve whisker retention in the matrix. Hardened glass ionomer was ground into a fine powder and mixed with the whiskers and used as fillers for a dental resin. Four control materials were also tested: a glass ionomer, a resin-modified glass ionomer, a compomer, and a hybrid composite. A three-point flexural test was used to measure flexural strength, modulus, and work-of-fracture. A fluoride ion-selective electrode was used to measure fluoride release. Composite surfaces polished simulating clinical procedures were examined by SEM and profilometry. Results. At whisker/(whisker + precured glass ionomer) mass fractions of 1.0 and 0.91, the whisker composite had a flexural strength in Mpa (mean (SD): n=6) of (196(10)) and (150 (16)), respectively, compared to (15(7)) for glass ionomer, (39(8)) for resin-modified glass ionomer, (89 (18)) for compomer, and (120 (16)) for hybrid composite. The whisker composite had a cummulative fluoride realease of nearly 20% of that of the glass ionomer after 90 days. The whisker composites had surface roughness comparable to the hybrid resin composite. Significance: Composites filled with precured glass ionomer particles and whiskers exhibit moderate fluoride release with improved mechanical properties: the whisker-to-glass ionomer ratio is a key microstructural parameter that controls fluoride release and mechanical properties.
Dental Materials Congress
No. 5


ceramic whisker, fluoride, glass ionomer, reinforcement, resin composite, strength


Xu, H. , Eichmiller, F. , Antonucci, J. , Schumacher, G. and Ives, L. (2000), Dental Resin Composites Containing Ceramic Whiskers and Precured Glass Ionomer Particles, Dental Materials Congress, [online], (Accessed June 19, 2024)


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Created August 31, 2000, Updated October 12, 2021