Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

The .gov means it’s official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you’re on a federal government site.


The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

Demonstration of a polarization-entangled photon-pair source based on phase-modulated PPLN



Paulina S. Kuo, Varun B. Verma, Sae Woo Nam


We develop and demonstrate a source of polarization-entangled photon pairs using spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) in domain-engineered, periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) at telecom wavelengths. Pumped at 775 nm, this domain-engineered type-II SPDC source produces non-degenerate signal and idler pairs at 1530 nm and 1569 nm. Because of birefringence, the photon pair with horizontally polarized signal and vertically polarized idler has a different phasematching condition than the pair with vertically polarized signal and horizontally polarized idler. Using phase-modulation of the domain structure, we produced a crystal that can simultaneously generate both states in a distributed fashion throughout a single crystal. Performing SPDC using this aperiodically poled crystal, we observed polarization entanglement visibility above 93%. We compare the phase-modulated crystal to other aperiodic structures, including dual-periodically-poled and interlaced biperiodic structures
OSA Continuum


spontaneous parametric downconversion, quasi-phasematching, quantum communications
Created January 29, 2020, Updated January 30, 2020