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Defect Evolution of Ion-Exposed Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes



Jana Kalbacova, Elias J. Garratt, Raul D. Rodriguez, Angela R. Hight Walker, Kevin A. Twedt, Jeffrey Fagan, Teresa I. Madeira, Jabez J. McClelland, Babak Nikoobakht, Dietrich R. Zahn


A systematic evaluation of defects is essential to understand and engineer device properties and applications. Raman spectroscopy is employed for the characterization of carbon nanomaterials in particular to quantitatively evaluate defects from the intensity ratio of characteristic Raman peaks (ID/IG+). We systematically explore and controllably induce defects in single-wall carbon nanotubes by a focused ion beam of light and heavy ions, Li+ and Ga+, respectively. Precise control of defects was achieved by tuning the ion fluence over five orders of magnitude from 3∙1010 ions/cm2 to 1015 ions/cm2. Thin films of sorted single-wall carbon nanotubes with different electronic types (semiconducting and metallic) were studied by Raman spectroscopy using 514.5 nm (2.41 eV) and 632.8 nm (1.96 eV) laser lines before and after irradiation. From the ID/IG+ ratio we estimated that the exposure to lighter ions results in five times less damage compared to heavier ions. This is further explored in a model that accounts for the ion type and its energy and thus can be employed to estimate vacancies created in the carbon nanotube sample upon irradiation, what ID/IG+ (ID/IG′) ratio can be expected, and as such can be employed as a tool to quantify defects.
Journal of Physical Chemistry C


single-wall carbon nanotubes, metallic, semiconducting, defects, Raman spectroscopy, focused ion beam


Kalbacova, J. , Garratt, E. , Rodriguez, R. , Hight Walker, A. , Twedt, K. , Fagan, J. , Madeira, T. , McClelland, J. , Nikoobakht, B. and Zahn, D. (2019), Defect Evolution of Ion-Exposed Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes, Journal of Physical Chemistry C, [online], (Accessed April 16, 2024)
Created January 2, 2019, Updated October 12, 2021