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The Cu II Spectrum



Alexander Kramida, Gillian Nave, Joseph Reader


New wavelength measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV), ultraviolet and visible spectral regions have been combined with available literature data to refine and extend the description of the spectrum of singly ionized copper (Cu II). In the VUV region, we measured 401 lines using a concave grating spectrograph and photographic plates. In the UV and visible regions, we measured 276 lines using a Fourier-transform spectrometer. These new measurements were combined with previously unpublished data from the thesis of Ross, with accurate VUV grating measurements of Kaufman & Ward, and with less accurate older measurements of Shenstone to construct a comprehensive list of 2440 observed lines, from which we derived a revised set of 379 optimized energy levels, complemented with 89 additional levels obtained using series formulas. Among the 379 experimental levels, 29 are new. Intensities of all lines observed in different experiments have been reduced to the same uniform scale by using newly calculated transition probabilities (A-values). We combined our calculations with published measured and calculated A-values to provide a set of 555 critically evaluated transition probabilities with estimated uncertainties, 162 of which are less than 20 %.


Atomic spectroscopy, critical compilation, energy levels, spectral lines, line identification, Fourier-transform spectra, grating spectroscopy, Ritz standards, vacuum ultraviolet, transition probabilities


Kramida, A. , Nave, G. and Reader, J. (2017), The Cu II Spectrum, Atoms, [online], (Accessed April 15, 2024)
Created February 24, 2017, Updated July 3, 2023