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Ray Radebaugh


This article is for publication in the Encyclopedia of Chemistry. The article gives a definition of cryogenics and describes the origin of the term and how it has been defined. Temperature scales and thermometry are discussed in relation to the absolute temperature scale. A brief description of refrigeration methods to achieve cryogenic temperatures is given along with a few importantapplications of cryogenics. Some of the applications include gas liquefaction, superconductivity, food freezing, preservation of biological materials, and cryosurgery.
Encyclopedia of Chemistry


absolute zero, cryogenics, cryosurgery, liquefaction, refrigeration, temperature scales, thermometry


Radebaugh, R. (2008), Cryogenics, Encyclopedia of Chemistry (Accessed June 25, 2024)


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Created October 16, 2008