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Cost-Effective Environmental Sustainability: A Focus on the Circular Economy



Douglas Thomas


Currently, global economies are using resources and contaminating resources faster than they can be regenerated. This resource depletion strains the economy and society today and into the future and is largely due to a series of misaligned incentives. Solving this problem begins by identifying these misalignments, identifying feasible solutions that realign incentives or addresses the results of the misalignment. This report examines the economics of a circular economy, focusing on standards and technologies that might facilitate increased environmental sustainability.
Advanced Manufacturing Series (NIST AMS) - 100-48
Report Number


circular economy, manufacturing, recycling, sustainability, product life expectancy, recyclability, repairability


Thomas, D. (2022), Cost-Effective Environmental Sustainability: A Focus on the Circular Economy, Advanced Manufacturing Series (NIST AMS), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online],, (Accessed June 24, 2024)


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Created October 24, 2022, Updated November 29, 2022