Constructing Galerkins Approximations of Invariant Tori Using MACSYMA
David E. Gilsinn
Invariant tori of solutions for nonlinearly coupled oscillators are generalizations of limit cycles in the phase plane. They are surfaces of aperiodic solutions of the coupled oscillators with the property that once a solution is on the surface it remains on the surface. Invariant tori satisfy a defining system of partial differential equations. This case study shows that with the help of a symbolic manipulation package, such as MACSYMA, approximations to the invariant tori can be developed by using Galerkin?s variational method. The resulting series must be manipulated efficiently, however, by using the Poisson series representation for multiply periodic functions, which makes maximum use of the list processing techniques of MACSYMA. Three cases are studied for the single van der Pol oscillator with forcing parameter epsilon=0.5,1.0, 1.5, and three cases are studied for a pair of nonlinearly coupled van der Pol oscillators with forcing parameters epsilon = 0.05, 0.5, 1.0. The approximate tori exhibit good agreement with direct numerical integration of the systems.