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A Computational Study of Extinguishment and Enhancement of Propane Cup-Burner Flames by Halon and Alternative Agents



Gregory T. Linteris, Fumiaki Takahashi, Viswanath R. Katta, Valeri I. Babushok


Computations of cup-burner flames in normal gravity have been performed using propane as the fuel to reveal the combustion inhibition and enhancement by the CF3Br (halon 1301) and potential alternative fire-extinguishing agents (C2HF5, C2HF3Cl2, and C3H2F3Br). The time- dependent, two-dimensional numerical code used includes a detailed kinetic model (up to 241 species and 3918 reactions), diffusive transport, and a gray-gas radiation model. The peak reactivity spot (i.e., reaction kernel) at the flame base stabilizes a trailing flame, which is inclined inwardly by a buoyancy-induced entrainment flow. As the volume fraction of agent in the coflow increases gradually, the premixed-like reaction kernel weakens, thus inducing the flame base detachment from the burner rim and blowoff-type extinguishment eventually. The two- zone flame structure (with two heat-release-rate peaks) is formed in the trailing diffusion flame. The H2O formed in the inner zone is converted further, primarily in the outer zone, to HF and CF2O through exothermic reactions most significantly with the C2HF5 addition. The total heat release of the entire flame decreases (inhibiting) for CF3Br but increases (enhancing) for the halon alternative agents, particularly C2HF5 and C2HF3Cl2. Addition of C2HF5 results in unusual (non-chain branching) reactions.
Fire Safety Journal


aircraft cargo-bay fire suppression, halon 1301 replacement, numerical simulation, diffusion flame stabilization, reaction kernel


Linteris, G. , Takahashi, F. , Katta, V. and Babushok, V. (2018), A Computational Study of Extinguishment and Enhancement of Propane Cup-Burner Flames by Halon and Alternative Agents, Fire Safety Journal, [online], (Accessed June 13, 2024)


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Created April 6, 2018, Updated November 10, 2018