Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Compressed-liquid density measurements of three alternative turbine fuels



Stephanie L. Outcalt


Heavier kerosene based liquid fuels for aircraft and rockets are required to meet stringent performance specifications. Nevertheless, the escalating cost, unpredictable supply, and environmental impacts of traditional petroleum based fuels used for that purpose has lead both the commercial airline industry and the U.S. military to seek out renewable alternatives. Indeed, the FAA has mandated the use of a significant fraction of renewable fuels in the near future. Measurements of various thermophysical properties are critical in vetting the potential of new biofuels. In an ongoing program at NIST in Boulder, Colorado, measurements of a fuels distillation curve, density, viscosity and speed of sound help in determining if a novel biofuel might be used as a drop in replacement or if it might be blended with another fuel to meet industry and/or military specifications. Aviation fuels must meet density specifications that ensure operations within the experience base of operators, while ensuring an ample supply. Presented in this talk will be compressed-liquid densities of two biofuels with the potential to be used in different gas turbine engines. The first fuel was derived from hyroprocessed chicken fat for aircraft application) and the second is a hydrogenated fuel derived from the dimerized components of crude turpentine (for cruise missiles). Measurements were made from 270 K to 470 K at pressures of 0.5 MPa to 50 MPa. The data are compared to previous measurements of other petroleum based turbine fuels and ASTM and military specifications.
Proceedings Title
ACS Division of Energy and Fuels
Conference Dates
August 10-14, 2014
Conference Location
San Francisco, CA
Conference Title
248th ACS National Meeting


Outcalt, S. (2014), Compressed-liquid density measurements of three alternative turbine fuels, ACS Division of Energy and Fuels, San Francisco, CA, [online], (Accessed May 17, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created August 10, 2014, Updated November 10, 2018