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Combustion inhibition and enhancement of premixed methane-air flames by C2HF5, C6F12O, C3H2F3Br, and CF3Br, in a Closed Vessel



John Pagliaro, Gregory T. Linteris


Apparent combustion enhancement by some halon replacement fire suppressants (proposed for use in aircraft cargo bays) has been observed in full-scale, constant-volume tests at the FAA. In order to explore the phenomena, laboratory-scale constant-volume combustion experiments are were performed. The maximum explosion pressure and burning velocity were measured for methane- air flames with added C2HF5 (HFC-125), C6F12O (Novec 1230), C3H2F3Br (2-BTP), and CF3Br (Halon 1301). The explosion pressure, for initially stoichiometric flames, was increased mildly (up to 6% and 11%) with C2HF5 and C6F12O added at low concentration, while at lean conditions (Φ=0.6), it was increased about 50% for added C2HF5, C6F12O, or C3H2F3Br, at agent volume fractions Xa=0.06, 0.02, and 0.03. The burning velocity for initially stoichiometric flames was always decreased with addition of any of the agents, whereas, for the lean conditions, it increased with added C6F12O or C2HF5 (32% and 14%, at Xa=0.01 and 0.03). Burning velocities at higher initial pressure (3 bar) and temperature (400K) showed lower inhibition effectiveness (than at ambient conditions) for the stoichiometric flames, and larger enhancement for the lean flames (and the effect was due primarily to the temperature increase). CF3Br did not increase the explosion pressure or burning velocity for any of the tested conditions. Equilibrium calculations were used to interpret the experiments. The present work is consistent with the FAA results and previous analysis of the full-scales tests.
Combustion and Flame


Fire suppression, Halon 1301, Air craft cargo bay fire protection, Halon replacement, Refrigerant flammability, HFC-125, Novec 1230, 2-BTP, CF3Br.


Pagliaro, J. and Linteris, G. (2014), Combustion inhibition and enhancement of premixed methane-air flames by C2HF5, C6F12O, C3H2F3Br, and CF3Br, in a Closed Vessel, Combustion and Flame, [online], (Accessed July 17, 2024)


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Created August 21, 2014, Updated October 12, 2021