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Collaborative Tactical Behaviors for Autonomous Ground and Air Vehicles



James S. Albus, Anthony J. Barbera, Harry A. Scott, Stephen B. Balakirsky


Tactical behaviors for autonomous ground and air vehicles are an area of high interest to the Army. They are critical for the inclusion of robots in the Future Combat System (FCS). Tactical behaviors can be defined at multiple levels: at the Company, Platoon, Section, and Vehicle echelons. They are currently being defined by the Army for the FCS Unit of Action. At all of these echelons, unmanned ground vehicles, unmanned air vehicles, and unattended ground sensors must collaborate with each other and with manned systems. Research being conducted at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and sponsored by the Army Research Lab is focused on defining the Four Dimensional Real-time Controls System (4D/RCS) reference model architecture for intelligent systems and developing a software engineering methodology for system design, integration, test and evaluation. This methodology generates detailed design requirements for perception, knowledge representation, decision making, and behavior generation processes that enable complex military tactics to be planned and executed by unmanned ground and air vehicles working in collaboration with manned systems.
Proceedings Title
Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 5804
Conference Dates
March 29-31, 2005
Conference Location
Orlando, FL, USA
Conference Title
Unmanned Ground Vehicle Technology VII (Orlando)


4D/RCS, autonomy, Mobility, Robotics & Intelligent Systems, tactical behavior, task decomposition, Unmanned Systems, unmanned vehicles


Albus, J. , Barbera, A. , Scott, H. and Balakirsky, S. (2006), Collaborative Tactical Behaviors for Autonomous Ground and Air Vehicles, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 5804, Orlando, FL, USA, [online], (Accessed June 19, 2024)


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Created June 27, 2006, Updated October 12, 2021