Chironomus riparius exposure to fullerene-contaminated sediment results in oxidative stress and may impact life cycle parameters
Greta Waissi-Leinonen, S Bold, J Akkanen, Matti Leppanen, Elijah J. Petersen, JVK Kukkonen
A key component of understanding the potential environmental risks of fullerenes (nC60) is their potential effects on benthic invertebrates. Using the sediment dwelling invertebrate Chironomus riparius we explored the effects of acute (12 h and 24 h) and chronic (10 d, 15 d, and 28 d) exposures of sediment associated fullerenes. The aims of this study were to assess the impact of exposure to nC60 in the sediment top layer (0.025, 0.18 and 0.48) C60 mg/cm2 on larval growth, oxidative stress and emergence rates and to quantify larval body burdens in similarly exposed organisms. Oxidative stress localization was observed in the tissues next to the microvilli and exoskeleton using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) through a method for identifying oxidative stress reactions generated by reactive oxygen species. Rapid intake of fullerenes was shown in acute experiments, whereas body residues decreased after chronic exposure. TEM analysis revealed oxidative damage and structural changes in cells located between the lipid droplets and next to the microvilli layer in fullerene exposed samples. Fullerene associated sediments also caused changes in the emergence rate of males and females, changes which may impact breeding and have negative population level effects.