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Chip-Scale Atomic Frequency References: Fabrication and Performance



John Kitching, Svenja A. Knappe, Li-Anne Liew, John M. Moreland, Hugh Robinson, Peter D. Schwindt, V Shah, V Gerginov, Leo W. Hollberg


The physics package for a chip-scale atomic frequency reference was constructed and tested. The device has a total volume of 9.5 mm3, dissipates 75 mW of electrical power at an ambient temperature of 45 °C and has a short-term fractional frequency instability of 2.4×10-10/√υ. Advanced cell fabrication techniques indicate a long-term instability near 1-^-11^ may be feasible.
Conference Location
Besancon, 1, FR
Conference Title
19th European Frequency and Time Forum


Atomic, clock, compact, microfabrication, wafer bonding


Kitching, J. , Knappe, S. , Liew, L. , Moreland, J. , Robinson, H. , Schwindt, P. , Shah, V. , Gerginov, V. and Hollberg, L. (2005), Chip-Scale Atomic Frequency References: Fabrication and Performance, 19th European Frequency and Time Forum, Besancon, 1, FR (Accessed April 15, 2024)
Created November 30, 2005, Updated October 12, 2021