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Chip-Scale Atomic Clocks at NIST



John E. Kitching, Svenja A. Knappe, Li-Anne Liew, John Moreland, Hugh Robinson, P Schwindt, V Shah, Vladislav Gerginov, Leo W. Hollberg


We describe recent efforts to develop microfabricated atomic frequency references capable of supporting a wide variety of commercial and military systems such as global positioning and wireless communication. These devices are anticipated to eventually have a volume of 1 cm3, dissipate less than 30 mW of electrical power and maintain a fractional frequency stability better than 10-11 over one hour. Because of the small size and low power requirements, these devices will enable atomic-level timekeeping in portable, battery-powered units.
Proceedings Title
Proc. NCSLI Conf.
Conference Dates
August 7-12, 2005
Conference Location
Washington, DC


atomic, clock, compact, microfabrication, wafer bonding


Kitching, J. , Knappe, S. , Liew, L. , Moreland, J. , Robinson, H. , Schwindt, P. , Shah, V. , Gerginov, V. and Hollberg, L. (2005), Chip-Scale Atomic Clocks at NIST, Proc. NCSLI Conf., Washington, DC, [online], (Accessed May 26, 2024)


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Created August 7, 2005, Updated February 17, 2017