Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

The .gov means it’s official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you’re on a federal government site.


The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

Chip-Scale Atomic Clocks at NIST



John E. Kitching, Svenja A. Knappe, Li-Anne Liew, John Moreland, Hugh Robinson, P Schwindt, V Shah, Vladislav Gerginov, Leo W. Hollberg


We describe recent efforts to develop microfabricated atomic frequency references capable of supporting a wide variety of commercial and military systems such as global positioning and wireless communication. These devices are anticipated to eventually have a volume of 1 cm3, dissipate less than 30 mW of electrical power and maintain a fractional frequency stability better than 10-11 over one hour. Because of the small size and low power requirements, these devices will enable atomic-level timekeeping in portable, battery-powered units.
Proceedings Title
Proc. NCSLI Conf.
Conference Dates
August 7-12, 2005
Conference Location
Washington, DC


atomic, clock, compact, microfabrication, wafer bonding
Created August 7, 2005, Updated February 17, 2017