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Characterization of Transmission Lines with Nonlinear Dielectric Materials



Aaron M. Hagerstrom, Christian J. Long, Nathan D. Orloff, James C. Booth, Eric J. Marksz


Nonlinear transmission lines are interesting for two broad reasons: first, they have several direct device applications (i.e. harmonic generation, and phase shifters), and second, they provide a way to characterize nonlinear materials at mm-wave frequencies. In either case, circuit modeling is challenging because nonlinear waveguides are described by a nonlinear wave equation. In this paper, we focus on characterizing the nonlinear mixing products generated by coplanar waveguides on a strongly nonlinear ferroelectric Ba0:5Sr0:5TiO3 (BST) film. We develop a perturbative solution to the nonlinear wave equation, and validate our model by using a nonlinear vector network analyzer (NVNA) measure the nonlinear mixing products. Our approach is useful for predicting spurious signals generated by nonlinear mixing in devices with nonlinear dielectrics, and predicting the performance of nonlinear devices like harmonic generators.
Conference Dates
November 28-December 1, 2017
Conference Location
Boulder, CO
Conference Title
90th ARFTG Microwave Measurement Conference


Terms—Materials characterization, nonlinear vector network analysis, On-wafer metrology, tunable dielectrics


Hagerstrom, A. , Long, C. , Orloff, N. , Booth, J. and Marksz, E. (2017), Characterization of Transmission Lines with Nonlinear Dielectric Materials, 90th ARFTG Microwave Measurement Conference, Boulder, CO, [online], (Accessed April 22, 2024)
Created November 28, 2017, Updated June 2, 2021