In the preceding chapters, we have focused on broadband, calibrated measurements of nanoelectronic devices. In particular, we have described measurement techniques for the measurement of calibrated, complex scattering parameters and the subsequent extraction of circuit model parameters. In order to facilitate the ongoing development of novel, radio-frequency (RF) nanoelectronic devices, it is highly desirable to complement scattering parameter measurements with local, intra-device measurements. Furthermore, non-destructive, spatially-localized characterization of nanomaterials and other nanoelectronic building blocks is critical for engineering of RF nanoelectronics. Thus, in this chapter, we introduce broadband, near-field probes, especially those integrated with scanning probe microscopes. A critical component of the near-field scanning microwave microscope is the broadband probe and the probes near field interaction with investigated materials and devices. Therefore, we will place particular emphasis on near-field probes that are similar to atomic force microscope cantilevers, including models for local effects around the tip-apex, as well as the parasitic effects of the cantilevers body. This introduction should serve as a foundation for understanding the application of these measurement systems to semi-quantitative and quantitative characterization of both devices and materials. We will discuss the fundamental concepts and modeling of probe-based measurement systems. In addition, we shall introduce techniques for calibration of broadband scanning probe systems that enable quantitative characterization of device and material properties.
Measurement Techniques for Radio Frequency Nanoelectronics