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Calculation of Phase Equilibria in Candidate Solder Alloys



Ursula R. Kattner, C A. Handwerker


New solder alloys are being developed for electronic assemblies as replacements for traditional Pb-containing solder materials as a result of international pressure to remove Pb from the waste stream. In the transition period from Pb-containing to Pb-free solder alloys, component leads and cooper interconnections on circuit board will continue to be pretinned with a PB-containing solder to improve solderability. Phase equilibria information is needed for the evaluation of candidate solder alloys in terms of their melting behavior and of the possible effects of Pb-contamination on manufacturing and reliability. The CALPHAD method of phase equilibria calculation using thermodynamic descriptions from databases provides a powerful tool for obtaining such information. The reliability of the calculation, however, depends on the quality of the thermodynamic descriptions of the individual phases. Criteria for the evaluation of these descriptions and the available thermodynamic databases are discussed. The effect of Pb-contamination on four solder alloys is analyzed.
Zeitschrift Fur Metallkunde
No. 7


CALPHAD, data evaluation, freezing ranges, phase equilibria, solder, thermodynamic databases


Kattner, U. and Handwerker, C. (2001), Calculation of Phase Equilibria in Candidate Solder Alloys, Zeitschrift Fur Metallkunde (Accessed July 12, 2024)


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Created July 1, 2001, Updated February 17, 2017