Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Broadband Characterization of Optoelectronic Components to 65 GHz Using VNA Techniques



M M. Maska, Jon Martens, Tracy S. Clement, Paul D. Hale, Dylan Williams


This paper discusses the typical uncertainties associated with characterizing high speed photodiodes to 65 GHz when using a vector network analyzer measurement technique. We analyzed the accuracy of the technique by comparing measurements of two reference standards that had previously been calibrated using electro-optic sampling and heterodyne methods. The results of the comparison show very good correlation to the direct characterizations. Typical uncertainties were less than 1.0 dB at frequencies up to 50 GHz and less than 2 dB at 65 GHz. The dominant sources of uncertainty come from noise floor in the VNA above 50 GHz (depending upon signal level) and base uncertainty in the (E-O sampling) reference standard characterization.
Proceedings Title
Conf. Dig., 62nd Auto. RF Techniques Group
Conference Dates
December 2-5, 2003
Conference Location
Boulder, CO, USA


calibration, electro-optic sampling, metrology, optoelectronic, VNA


Maska, M. , Martens, J. , Clement, T. , Hale, P. and Williams, D. (2003), Broadband Characterization of Optoelectronic Components to 65 GHz Using VNA Techniques, Conf. Dig., 62nd Auto. RF Techniques Group, Boulder, CO, USA, [online], (Accessed June 18, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created December 31, 2002, Updated October 12, 2021