Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Blackman Diagrams and Elastic-Constant Systematics



H M. Ledbetter


We consider Blackman diagrams for various cubic materials. These diagrams, plots of reduced elastic-stiffness coefficients C12/C11 versus C44/C11, show that materials with similar chemical bonding tend to fall in the same region of the diagrams. Such diagrams provide many uses. One important use is to enable determination of the complete cubic-symmetry Cij-Cd11^, C12, C44-from the quasiisotropic (polycrystal) elastic constants. The diagram gives information about elastic anisotropy, departures from central interatomic forces, and lattice instabilities, Examples considered include b.c.c. metals, f.c.c. metals, diamond-cubic elements, alkali halides, oxides, 8-N compounds, carbides, semiconductors, and Fe-Cr-Ni alloys (austenitic stainless steels).
Blackman Diagrams and Elastic-Constant Systematics
Publisher Info
Handbook of Elastic Properties of Solids, Fluids, and Gases ,


80N compounds, alloys, blackman diagrams, carbides, elastic constants, elements, Fe-cr-n, halides, oxides


Ledbetter, H. (2001), Blackman Diagrams and Elastic-Constant Systematics, Handbook of Elastic Properties of Solids, Fluids, and Gases , , [online], (Accessed July 19, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created January 5, 2001, Updated February 19, 2017