The presentation will discuss the application of refrigerants starting from the beginnings of artificial cold in the era of industrial revolution to the currently used fluids, and the refrigerant options in response to concerns regarding stratospheric ozone depletion and climate change. The availability of refrigerants having low global warming potential (GWP) varies between different applications as it will be demonstrated by four system types. Unitary air conditioning (high-pressure application) presents a particularly difficult challenge; no single ideal refrigerant exists, and a tradeoff between flammability and GWP seems to be necessary. The probability of finding better-performing, non-flammable, low-GWP fluids is minimal. This viewpoint is based on the findings from a NIST study, which a screened database of 60 million molecules. The search for suitable refrigerants relied on screening this database using filters of environmental acceptance, chemical stability in the system, low toxicity, coefficient of performance (COP and volumetric capacity (Qvol). The presentation will include a discussion of refrigerant flammability and refrigerant blends formulated in the pursuit of desired attributes of the working fluids.
9th International Conference on Compressors and Refrigeration (ICCR2018), Xian, P.R. China,
July 10-12, 2019
air conditioning, cooling, Global Warming Potential, refrigeration, working fluids