Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Application of the Josephson Effect to Metrology



Samuel P. Benz, Clark Hamilton


The unique ability of a Josephson junction to control the flow of magnetic flux quanta leads to a perfect relationship between frequency and voltage. Over the last 30 years, metrology laboratories have used this effect to greatly improve the accuracy of dc voltage standards. More recent research is focused on combining the ideas of digital signal processing with quantum voltage pulses to achieve similar gains in ac voltage metrology. The integrated circuits that implement these ideas are the only complex superconducting electronic devices that have found wide commercial application.
Proceedings of the IEEE


frequency, metrology, superconductor, synthesis, voltage standard


Benz, S. and Hamilton, C. (2004), Application of the Josephson Effect to Metrology, Proceedings of the IEEE, [online], (Accessed December 9, 2023)
Created October 1, 2004, Updated February 19, 2017