Apparatus for the measurement of electrical resistivity, Seebeck coefficient, and thermal conductivity of thermoelectric materials between 300 K and 12 K
Joshua B. Martin, George S. Nolas
We have developed a custom apparatus for the consecutive measurement of the electrical resistivity, the Seebeck coefficient, and the thermal conductivity of materials between 300 K and 12 K. These three transport properties provide for a basic understanding of the thermal and electrical properties of materials. They are of fundamental importance in identifying and optimizing new materials for thermoelectric applications. Thermoelectric applications include waste heat recovery for automobile engines and industrial power generators, solid-state refrigeration, and remote power generation for sensors and space probes. The electrical resistivity is measured using a four-probe bipolar technique, the Seebeck coefficient is measured using the quasi-steady-state condition of the differential method in a 2-probe arrangement, and the thermal conductivity is measured using a longitudinal, multiple gradient steady-state technique. We describe the instrumentation and the measurement uncertainty associated with each transport property, each of which is presented with representative measurement comparisons using round robin samples and/or certified reference materials. Transport properties data from this apparatus have supported the identification, development, and phenomenological understanding of novel thermoelectric materials.
and Nolas, G.
Apparatus for the measurement of electrical resistivity, Seebeck coefficient, and thermal conductivity of thermoelectric materials between 300 K and 12 K, Review of Scientific Instruments, [online], https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4939555
(Accessed December 6, 2023)