Most modern instrumental techniques used in analytical chemistry produce an output or signal that is not absolute; the signal or peak is not a direct quantitative measure of concentration or target analyte quantity. Thus, to perform quantitative analysis, one must convert the raw output from an instrument (information) into a quantity (knowledge). This is done by standardizing or calibrating the raw response from an instrument.1-4 Here, we briefly summarize the most common methods applied in analytical chemistry, recognizing that this is a very large field. We note that the common use of the term standardization is not to be confused with the application of standard methods as specified by regulatory or consensus standard organizations.
CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics - 93rd edition