Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Analytical Modeling of the Periodic Nonlinearity in Heterodyne Interferometry



C M. Wu, R Deslattes


The periodic nonlinearity that arises from nonideal laser sources and imperfections of optical components limits the accuracy of displacement measurements in heterodyne interferometry at the nanometer level. An analytical approach to investigating the nonlinearity is presented. Frequency mixing, polarization-frequency mixing, and ghost reflections are all included in this investigation. A general form for the measurement signal, including that of the distortions, is given. The analytical approach is also applicable to homodyne interferometry.
Applied Optics
No. 28


interferometry, nonlinearity, phase error


Wu, C. and Deslattes, R. (1998), Analytical Modeling of the Periodic Nonlinearity in Heterodyne Interferometry, Applied Optics (Accessed March 4, 2024)
Created October 1, 1998, Updated February 17, 2017