Robust analytical methods for the characterization and measurement of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in complex media (e.g. soils, air, foods, tissues) are critical for nanomaterial environmental health and human safety risk assessments. However, there are only a few reproducible methods/techniques capable of directly (in situ) characterizing ENPs in environmental and biological media. There are more methods capable of characterizing and measuring ENPs in complex media after extensive sample preparation or extraction of the ENPs from the background matrix, but these sample preparation processes typically alter the physiocochemical properties of the native ENP. There exist critical gaps in the types of analytical methodologies that can be routinely utilized for characterizing ENPs in complex environments. This short chapter discusses the current state of ENP metrology in important types of environmental media and also discusses the challenges involved in characterizing ENPs in biological media. We also provide brief examples of new and outstanding ENP characterization methodology that we believe will help move the ENP characterization field forward and improve the overall measurement of ENPs in complex media.
Metrology and Standardization of Nanomaterials: Protocols and Industrial Innovations
Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, -1
characterization, nanoparticles, metrology, measurement, biological, environment