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Analysis of PFAAs in American alligators Part 1: Concentrations in alligators harvested for consumption during South Carolina public hunts.



Jessica Tipton, Louis J. Guillette, Benjamin B. Parrott, Thomas R. Rainwater, Jessica L. Reiner


Environmental contamination resulting from the production or release of harmful chemicals can lead to negative consequences for wildlife and human health. Perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) were historically produced as protective coatings for many household items and currently persist in the environment, wildlife, and humans. PFAAs have been linked to immune suppression, endocrine disruption, and developmental toxicity in wildlife and laboratory studies. This study examines the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis, as an important indicator of ecosystem contamination and a potential pathway for PFAA exposure in humans. Alligator meat harvested in the 2015 South Carolina (SC) public hunt season and prepared for human consumption was collected and analyzed for PFAAs to determine meat concentrations and relationships with animal body size (total length), sex, and location of harvest. Of the 15 PFAAs analyzed, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was found in all alligator meat samples and at the highest concentrations (median 6.73 ng/g). No relationship was found between PFAA concentrations and total length or sex. Concentrations (of one or all compounds varied significantly across sampling locations, with alligators harvested in the Middle Coastal hunt unit having the highest PFOS concentrations (median 16.0 ng/g; p= 0.0001). Alligators harvested specifically from Berkley County, SC (located in the Middle Coastal hunt unit) had the highest PFOS concentrations and the greatest number of PFAAs detected (p<0.0001). The site-specific nature of PFAA concentrations in alligator meat observed in this study suggests a source of PFAA contamination in Berkley County, SC.
Journal of Environmental Sciences-China


Perfluorinated alkyl acids, American alligators, South Carolina, PFOS, dietary exposure


Tipton, J. , Guillette, L. , Parrott, B. , Rainwater, T. and Reiner, J. (2017), Analysis of PFAAs in American alligators Part 1: Concentrations in alligators harvested for consumption during South Carolina public hunts., Journal of Environmental Sciences-China (Accessed June 14, 2024)


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Created November 28, 2017, Updated October 12, 2021