Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

The .gov means it’s official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you’re on a federal government site.


The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

On Algorithms and Heuristics for Constrained Least-Squares Fitting of Circles and Spheres to Support Standards



Craig M. Shakarji, Vijay Srinivasan


Constrained least-squares fitting has gained considerable popularity among national and international standards committees as the default method for establishing datums on manufactured parts. This has resulted in the emergence of several interesting and urgent problems in computational coordinate metrology. Among them is the problem of fitting inscribing and circumscribing circles (in two-dimensions) and spheres (in three-dimensions) using constrained least-squares criterion to a set of points that are usually described as a ‘point- cloud.’ This paper builds on earlier theoretical work, and provides practical algorithms and heuristics to compute such circles and spheres. Representative codes that implement these algorithms and heuristics are also given to encourage industrial use and rapid adoption of the emerging standards.
ASME Journal of Computing and Information Science in Engineering


circle, circumscribed, constrained least squares, datum, inscribed, least squares, optimization, sphere
Created September 1, 2019, Updated October 2, 2019