Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

AC-DC Transfer Standard Measurements with an AC Josephson Voltage Standard



Samuel P. Benz, Charles J. Burroughs, Paul D. Dresselhaus, Norman F. Bergren, Thomas E. Lipe, Joseph R. Kinard Jr., Yi-hua Tang


In order to improve the NIST low-voltage calibration service for thermal voltage converters, we have constructed an ac Josephson voltage standard system that can synthesize accurate rms voltages up to 100 mV. Using this system, we synthesized dc voltages and audio frequency sinewaves in order to measure ac-dc differences on the 22 mV and 220 mV ranges of a commercial thermal transfer standard. By modifying the output resistance of the low-pass-filtered transmission line, we were able to extend our measurement frequency from a few kilohertz up to 100 kHz. Our acJVS measurements agree with the uncertainty budget of ac-dc difference calibrations made of this transfer standard using conventional techniques. We also show progress toward extending the output to 200 mV using new Josephson circuits.
IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement


AC measurements, AC voltage standard, Josephson arrays, Josephson devices


Benz, S. , Burroughs, C. , Dresselhaus, P. , Bergren, N. , Lipe, T. , Kinard, J. and Tang, Y. (2007), AC-DC Transfer Standard Measurements with an AC Josephson Voltage Standard, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, [online], (Accessed May 27, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created April 2, 2007, Updated February 19, 2017