Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Ac-dc Difference at Cryogenic Temperatures



Thomas E. Lipe Jr., Joseph R. Kinard Jr., Carl D. Reintsema


We are continuing the development of a new primary standard for ac-dc difference that utilizes a superconducting resistive transition-edge device as the sensor. The most recent improvements to the Cryogenic Thermal Transfer Standard (CTTS) include on-chip magnetic shielding which has reduced the coupling of magnetic fields from the heaters into the transition-edge sensor; however, measurements indicate that errors still persist in the CTTS. To isolate these errors, we propose an experiment to measure two CTTS chips inside the cryostat, where transmission line and similar effects will be negligible. In addition, we are redesigning the sensor chip to improve its performance at higher power levels.
Proceedings Title
NCSL International Workshop and Symposium
Conference Dates
August 17-21, 2003
Conference Location
Tampa, FL, USA
Conference Title
National Conference of Standards Laboratories


Electrical Metrology, Thermal Converter, Thermal Transfer Standard, Transition-edge Sensor, Ac-dc Difference, Cryogenic Detectors


Lipe Jr., T. , Kinard Jr., J. and Reintsema, C. (2003), Ac-dc Difference at Cryogenic Temperatures, NCSL International Workshop and Symposium, Tampa, FL, USA, [online], (Accessed April 23, 2024)
Created July 31, 2003, Updated October 12, 2021