Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

4K Cryocooler Implementation of a DC Programmable Voltage Standard



Charles J. Burroughs, Robert J. Webber, Paul Dresselhaus, Samuel Benz


NIST and Hypres, Inc. have been collaborating to develop a 1 Volt DC programmable Josephson voltage standard (PJVS) that operates on a closed-cycle refrigerator. The goal of this work is to construct a platform that will allow the chip to work at 4 K without liquid helium, therby making the system more convenient and eliminating the need for users to handle liquid cryogens. In our existing PJVS systems, the Josephson chip temperature is the only parameter that is not computer controlled. The addition of a cryocooler will allow automated warming and cooling of the Josephson device and enable an intrinsic voltage standard system in which every control function is automated, and the only required user input is the desired output voltage. The cryocooler packeage is designed to allow PJVS chips to be easily interchanged between the cryocooler and liquid helium cryoprobes.
IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity


Josephson voltage standard, dc voltage, cryocooler, SNS Josephson junctions


Burroughs, C. , Webber, R. , Dresselhaus, P. and Benz, S. (2003), 4K Cryocooler Implementation of a DC Programmable Voltage Standard, IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, [online], (Accessed May 26, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created May 31, 2003, Updated October 12, 2021