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1 GHz Waveform Synthesis With Josephson Junction Arrays



Christine A. Donnelly, Nathan E. Flowers-Jacobs, Justus A. Brevik, Anna E. Fox, Paul D. Dresselhaus, Peter F. Hopkins, Samuel P. Benz


We synthesize single- and multiple-tone waveforms at gigahertz frequencies from arrays of Josephson junctions and demonstrate their quantum-locked operation over a range of experimental input parameters. We first use a lumped-element circuit to synthesize 1 and 2 GHz single-tone waveforms with −71 dBm output power and in-band spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) of −66 dBc. We then introduce a narrow-band diplexer circuit and synthesize a 1 GHz sinusoid with higher power (−49 dBm) and in-band SFDR of −79 dBc. To demonstrate the spectrally selective power- and phase-programmability of the diplexer circuit, we also synthesize multisine waveforms with total waveform power of −51 dBm. The spectral purity of the reported waveforms is limited by the room-temperature electronics rather than by the quantized pulse-based synthesis technique. This article provides direction for future circuit designs and uncovers the main factors that must be addressed to achieve higher power, higher spectral purity, and improved output power accuracy. The reported results represent significant progress towards a JAWS-based primary RF reference source that synthesizes programmable, quantum-referenced, low-distortion signals at gigahertz frequencies.
IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity


Waveform synthesis, Josephson junctions, gigahertz frequencies, arbitrary waveform generation, radio-frequency reference sources


Donnelly, C. , Flowers-Jacobs, N. , Brevik, J. , Fox, A. , Dresselhaus, P. , Hopkins, P. and Benz, S. (2019), 1 GHz Waveform Synthesis With Josephson Junction Arrays, IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, [online], (Accessed March 1, 2024)
Created July 31, 2019, Updated June 5, 2020