We use a variety of measurement tools to gain a full understanding of current drug and explosive threats. Particle size, chemical composition, morphology, crystallinity and spatial distribution are measured using a combination of scanning electron microscopy, optical and fluorescence microscopy, x ray and fluorescence spectroscopy, imaging mass spectrometry and imaging Raman. Information about the physical and chemical properties of these materials is used to support standard test material development as well as optimal sampling strategies for each threat.
"Improving Particle Collection Efficiency of Sampling Wipes used for Trace Chemical Detection", Gillen, Greg and Lawrence, Jeffrey and Sisco, Edward and Staymates, Matthew E. and Verkouteren, Jennifer and Robinson, Elizabeth L. and Bulk, Alexander, Anal. Methods, 14, 581-587 (2022). http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/D1AY01609A.
“Microscopy to Support Trace Screening of Contraband, Including Explosives and Illicit Drugs” Jennifer R Verkouteren and Edward Sisco, Microscopy and Microanalysis, 24, 1170-1171 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1017/S1431927618006335.
“Quantifying the stability of trace explosives under different environmental conditions using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry”, E Sisco, M Najarro, D Samarov and J Lawrence, Talanta, 165, 10-17 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2016.12.029.