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2021 Bronze Medal Award


Dr. Kolmakov is recognized for developing measurement procedures and micromachined test fixtures for electron-beam imaging and spectroscopy of samples in gases and liquids. Normally, electron-beam imaging can only be done on solids in a high vacuum. By using a thin electron-transparent window, he was able to extend scanning-electron-imaging techniques to samples in previously prohibitive environments. Applications include an improved understanding of semiconductor fabrication processes, electrochemical reactions in batteries, and new catalysts for pollution mitigation.


Andrei Kolmakov

Physical Measurement Laboratory