The authors note that the standard describes how two or more cloud providers could form a federation, allowing data and service sharing over a distributed environment. They also state that the IEEE defined the IEEE 2302-2021 standard based on the NIST Cloud Federation Reference Architecture. And they address federation uses that could produce societal benefits, including:
"Cloud Bursting": This capability would allow a primary cloud to expand capabilities by using an external cloud, like when a private cloud needs a public cloud's resources.
International Disaster Response: Information sharing in and beyond disaster regions could be achieved with federations, where data access is based on authorizations.
Virtual Mission Infrastructures: A federation could enable different organizations working together on a mission to access data needed, based on authorizations.
National Strategic Computing Reserve: This is an initiative being developed by the National Science and Technology Council that will connect compute resources for use in national emergencies.
Federated Analytics: The Confidential Computing Consortium has identified use cases for Trusted Execution Environments in which remote users need analytics and which a federation could enable.
The authors state that several federation-based systems are operational but have limited levels of applications purposes. They further say that the IEEE standard advances a "Federation Hosting Service" model and identifies increased capability levels for building to it: