The Sonics VC-375 is an ultrasonic generator which converts 50/60 Hz voltage to high frequency electrical energy. This alternating voltage is applied to disc-shaped ceramic piezoelectric crystals within the converter, causing them to expand and contract with each change of polarity. These high-frequency longitudinal mechanical vibrations are amplified by the probe (horn) and transmitted into the liquid as alternating high and low pressure waves. The pressure fluctuations cause the liquid molecule cohesive forces to break down, pulling apart the liquid and creating millions of micro-bubbles (cavities), which expand during the low pressure phases, and implode violently during the high pressure phases. As the bubbles collapse, millions of microscopic shock waves, micro jet streams, eddies and extremes in pressures and temperatures are generated at the implosion sites and propagated to the surrounding medium. Although this phenomenon, known as cavitation, lasts but a few microseconds, and the amount of energy released by each individual bubble is minimal, the cumulative amount of energy generated by the imploding cavities is extremely high and many times that generated in an ultrasonic bath. When used with environmentally safe aqueous cleaning solutions, the Vibra-Cell™ becomes a powerful cleaning tool, capable of removing the most tenacious contaminants from normally inaccessible locations. Unlike ultrasonic baths, which dissipate the vibrational energy over a large area, the Vibra-Cell™ probe focuses the energy to create a concentrated, high intensity cleaning zone.